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Hans-Heino Ewers

Children’s Literature Research in Germany. A Report.


I. Historical Review

II. Collections and Bibliographies

III. Research on Historical Children's Books

IV. Four basic Characteristics of German Historical Research

V. Scholarly Treatment of Contemporary Children's Literature

VI. Directions of Research

VII. Basic Research

VII. Institutions

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Bibliographies, Encyclopedias, Manuals, and Yearbooks

Historical research


Research reports

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I. Historical Review

The German-language literature for children belongs to the circle of renowned traditional and influential European literatures for young readers. Theoretical discussions on this topic have a long tradition in German-language countries. Laid down in extensive prefaces and separate essays an intensive debate on the nature and character of literature appropriate for children took place already in the late 18th and early 19th century and did not remain without effects abroad. Among the early German classical theories on literature for children count the preface of Joachim Heinrich Campe’s “Robinson der Jüngere” (1779/80) as well as the preliminary remarks of the Grimm Brothers' “Kinder- und Hausmärchen” (1812/15; 1819). During the 19th century, “German philology”, having the roots in German Romanticism, became an academic discipline. Adopting the Grimm Brothers' position of rejecting all modern and specifically for children written literature the advocators of the new discipline considered solely traditional folk tales as legitimate literature for children. Towards the end of the 19th century the discipline perceived children’s literature as moral-didactical literature written in the style of the 18th century which, since being intentional and conceived for a special target group, did not belong to the realm of “poetry” – a view to which the German studies departments of the universities clung until the sixties of the 20th century.

However, from the middle of the 19th century onwards and beyond the universities a genuine history of the new specific children’s literature developed as a non academic discipline, supported mostly by clerics, instructors and librarians which were joined during the 20th century by booksellers and collectors of children’s books as for example Karl Hobrecker (1846-1949) and Walter Benjamin (1892-1940). About the turn of the century the teacher Heinrich Wolgast (1860-1920) from Hamburg attracted European wide attention with his essay “Das Elend unserer Jugendliteratur” [About the misery of our children’s literature] (1896, 4th edition 1910). Therein he raised the claim that literature for children should be a “piece of art”. Besides Wolgast the teacher Hermann Leopold Köster (1872-1957), also from Hamburg, gained much reputation through his “Geschichte der deutschen Jugendliteratur in Monographien” [History of German children's literature in monographs] of 1906/08 (reprinted in 1968) which still today is worth reading. As critics of children's literature in the early 20th century are worth mentioning the teachers Severin Rüttgers (1876-1938) from Düsseldorf (“Über die literarische Erziehung als ein Problem der Arbeitsschule”, 1910 [About literary formation as a problem of work schools]) and Wilhelm Fronemann (1880-1954) from Frankfurt (“Das Erbe Wolgasts”, 1927 [The heritage of Wolgast], “Lesende Jugend”, 1930 [Reading children]), the librarian Erwin Ackerknecht (1880-1960) from Stettin (“Büchereifragen”, 1924 [On libraries]; “Der Kitsch als kultureller Übergangswert”, 1950 [Trumpery as cultural value of transition]) and the lecturer Josef Prestel from Munich (1888-1969); “Geschichte des deutschen Jugendschrifttums”, 1933 [History of German children’s literature]). During the Third Reich in particular Severin Rüttgers and Josef Prestel belonged to the most influential critics.

During the second half of the 20th century lecturers at teachers and librarians training institutions took over a leading part in the development of theories on children's criticism. The growing use of children's literature as school reading material was of major importance in this context. At the pedagogical academies and colleges of education respectively a new generation of scholars took over the direction during the fifties. To the founders of post war research on children's literature in West Germany and Austria count among others Anna Krüger (1904-1991), Richard Bamberger (born 1911), Horst Schaller (born 1916), Karl Ernst Maier (born 1920), Walter Scherf (born 1920), Theodor Brüggemann (born 1921) and Klaus Doderer (born 1925), who were joined by the younger Alfred Clemens Baumgärtner (born 1928), Malte Dahrendorf (born 1928) and Gerhard Haas (born 1929). As scholars from the German Democratic Republic may be named Manfred Altner (born 1930), Christian Emmrich (born 1927), Ingmar Dreher (born 1927), Gerhard Holtz-Baumert (1927-1996), Benno Pubanz (born 1935) and Egon Schmidt (born 1927).

At the beginning of the 1970s and altogether independent from children's literature criticism within the colleges of education there was a growing interest in children's literature on the part of the German studies departments of the West German universities. This academic discovery of children's literature was due to an extension of the concept of literature, which resulted in an enlargement of the subject matter. Now literary life in its manifold forms was discussed: mass communication, functional literature and all kind of literature aimed at defined target groups – e.g. children's literature which, however, was still considered pedagogical or trivial and of low status. In spite of that children's literature had become worthy of scholarly interest. With respect to the 70s the coming into existence of a genuine children's literature research carried out in the university departments of German studies can be observed. As proved by the inaugural dissertation of Walter Pape (1981) with the at that time exemplary title “Das literarische Kinderbuch” [The literary child book] the discipline eventually began to assign a certain literary value to its subject. Further inaugural dissertations written in the eighties and dealing with children's literature are those of Erhard Dahl (1986), Rüdiger Steinlein (1987), Reiner Wild (1987) and Hans-Heino Ewers (1989a).

The initial tensions between the traditional children's literature within the colleges of education and the new children's literature research carried out at the universities disappeared rather soon. The inaugural dissertations submitted in the eighties at the colleges of education or art colleges proved to be entirely equal in quality to the studies carried out at the universities. As examples may be named the works of Gisela Wilkending (1980), Dagmar Grenz (1981), Bettina Hurrelmann (1982), Maria Lypp (1984), Elke Liebs (1986), Ulrich Nassen (1987) and Gundel Mattenklott (1989). In the meantime many young scholars from the German studies departments at the universities have found a situation in children's literature research projects initiated by the relevant chairs of the former colleges of education. With regard to West Germany it was not until the eighties that research in children's literature could be thought of as one discipline, with regard to the reunified Germany this process took even ten years longer. Today the discipline includes also research carried out at librarian training institutions (Heidtmann 1998a).

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II. Collections and Bibliographies

In my eyes, the most striking change of the last four decades was brought about by the appearance of large-scale historical research on children's books. Still, this field of research encounters difficulties of a special kind that result mostly from the fact that children's literature has, for more than a hundred years, been considered unworthy of being collected in academic libraries. Consequently children's books of the past are to a great extent no longer available today. Paradoxically this is less true for books dating from the historical beginnings. The early children's and educational literature, from the outset of book printing in the 15th century to the end of the 18th century, was being collected on a rather large scale by the libraries of the nobility, by monasteries, universities and schools. Greater collections of old children's literature may – unless being destroyed during the two world wars - be found still today in the libraries of the Federal States (Länder), of the universities or in the municipal libraries of East and West Berlin, Göttingen, Munich, Nuremburg, Stuttgart, Vienna, Wolfenbüttel and Zurich, to name only the most important sources.

Since the 19th century, however, hardly any academic library had collected children's books. At most, sporadic stocks resulting from the presentation copies may be found in the libraries of the Länder. Seldom have children's books made their way into the libraries of grammar schools or institutions of secondary education. Collections of children's books grew up only in nursery or primary school teacher training colleges and mostly solely in the 20th century. Considering the tremendous rise in the production of children's books in the 19th century, one may imagine the extent of losses in this field. A small part, however, has survived, preserved in the libraries of churches, monasteries and castles and of the gentry, in publishers' warehouses, and in public or private libraries. Whenever these were liquidated, children's books often found their way into second-hand bookshops. At this point, the activities of the great collectors of children's books of the first half of the 20th century set in. The most distinguished among them were, besides the already mentioned Karl Hobrecker and Walter Benjamin, Arthur Rümann (1888-1963) and Walter Schatzki (1899-1979). The destiny of these collections has been uncertain for a long time; some have been integrated into academic libraries during the last decades. A great section of the Hobrecker collection is to be found at the university library of Braunschweig and has now been catalogued — it contains about 8500 titles (Düsterdieck 1985). Parts of the collections of Hobrecker and Rümann are being kept in the Frankfurt Institute for Children's Literature Research where, of late, Benjamin's collection is held as well. In the meantime, a younger generation of collectors of children's literature has closed its collections, including Theodor Brüggemann (Cologne), Hubert Göbels (Essen) and Erich Strobach (Bielefeld), just to name a few. Brüggemann has sold the major part of his children’s book collection to the Museum of Children’s Books of the city of Troisdorf (near Bonn).

The former general director of the East-Berlin State Library Horst Kunze succeeded in bringing together almost all East German stocks of historical children’s books in one collection. The section of children’s books of the ”Staatsbibliothek Preußischer Kulturbesitz Berlin” – today’s name of the library – disposes by far of the most comprehensive and precious stock of old children’s literature written in German language, with the main focus laid on the 18th, 19th and early 20th century. The section’s director for many years, Heinz Wegehaupt, has catalogued in three exemplary catalogues all titles of the collection published up to 1900 (Wegehaupt 1979, 1985 and 2000), which results in a total of 10.400 titles. Among the special libraries the ”Internationale Jugendbibliothek” (International Youth Library), founded in 1948 by Jella Lepman and located in Munich, and the ”Bibliothek des Instituts für Jugendbuchforschung”, founded in 1963, dispose of vast and significant stocks of children's literature. Both libraries’ collections concentrate on the second half of the 20th century and the present. In contrast to the Munich “International Youth Library” which collects German and international children's literature, the Frankfurt library focuses on German titles.

During the last decades the meticulous assessment of sources on an extremely extensive basis has become one of the major tasks of German research in children's literature. The number of inventories catalogues of collections and/or exhibitions and bibliographies published in the past three to four years is remarkable. In a research report Carola Pohlmann, the present director of the section of children's literature of the Berlin State Library, has recently commented on bibliographies, which have been published over the past ten years and treat German-language historical children's literature (Pohlmann 2001). With regard to East Germany the initiative to intensively study and make accessible on an extensive basis literary sources is with no doubt due to Horst Kunze. In West Germany it was in particular Theodor Brüggemann (Cologne) who reminded his colleagues to go back to the sources and who started to catalogue his own collection (the last catalogue published is about ”Kinder- und Jugendliteratur 1498-1950”, 2 volumes, 1986-1996). Prior to the first handbook of the Cologne project the Frankfurt Institute published from 1975 onwards the “Lexikon der Kinder- und Jugendliteratur” [Encyclopaedia of children's literature], edited by Klaus Doderer, which represents an important milestone also in regard to the historical research. The work offers abundant information on the history of the German children's literature and contains a lot of articles on authors and illustrators of the past as well as on the history of children’s literature of other countries (Doderer 1975-1982).

The Cologne research project, initiated in the late seventies by Theodor Brüggemann and now directed by Bettina Hurrelmann and Gisela Wilkending, has been concentrating for more than three decades on the history of German children's literature since the beginning of book printing and has presented its results so far in four voluminous handbooks (Brüggemann et al. 1982, 1987 und 1992; Brunken et al. 1997) each of them including a vast bibliographical appendix comprising a total of 3600 verified titles. An extensive bibliographical tracing of German Jewish children's literature from the 18th century to the Holocaust was done under the direction of Zohar Shavit and Hans-Heino Ewers by a research group from Tel Aviv in cooperation with Annegret Völpel from the Frankfurt Institute. The handbook, which was published in 1996 (Shavit/Ewers 1996), lists about 2500 titles. The reference book of Aiga Klotz, published between 1990 and 2000, gives the reader an autopsy of nearly all books treated. The complete title of this bibliography consisting of 7 volumes reads “Kinder- und Jugendliteratur in Deutschland 1840-1950. Gesamtverzeichnis der Veröffentlichungen in deutscher Sprache” [Children's literature in Germany from 1840 to 1950. General catalogue of publications written in German language] (Klotz 1990-2000). According to Carola Pohlmann the private scholar Aiga Klotz has written “a necessary reference book which sets standards”. ”The bibliographer’s resolution and enthusiasm to undertake the project of writing a general catalogue have to be admired […].” (Pohlmann 2001, 141, our translation). Finally and on behalf of the Swiss Institute for children's literature located in Zurich, Claudia Weilenmann has published an annotated bibliography of Swiss children's literature covering the period from 1750 to 1900 (Weilenmann 1993).

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III. Research on Historical Children's Books

At the beginning of the 19th century historical works on children's literature were assigned a concrete practical purpose, namely to examine the so far published reading material in order to decide whether or not it had to be deemed appropriate literature for contemporary children. These works usually ended with recommendation lists of books for children. The third edition, for example, of Adalbert Merget’s “Geschichte der deutschen Jugendliteratur” [History of German children’s literature] of 1882, published first in 1866, gives in its last part an extensive “Katalog der Jugendschriften” [catalogue of children’s literature] compiled by the school director Ludwig Berthold. In the early 20th century historical works on children's literature no longer pursued this purpose. Köster’s already above mentioned “Geschichte der deutschen Jugendliteratur in Monographien” of 1906/08 for example abstained from any lists and provided the reader only with chronologically arranged bibliographies. One could speak for the first time of a differentiation between a historical subject description and a present time oriented selection of historical titles. In spite of this change the relevant studies remained for the most part descriptive whereby the criteria applied were taken from the contemporary notions of childhood and children's literature. For monographs like Karl Hobrecker’s “Alte vergessene Kinderbücher” (1924) [Old and forgotten children’s books], Josef Prestel’s “Geschichte des deutschen Jugendschrifttums” (1933), Irene Graebsch’s “Geschichte des deutschen Jugendbuches” (1942) [History of the German children’s book] (second and politically corrected edition in 1951; a third and largely extended edition was published under the name I. Dyhrenfurth in 1967) and even for Bettina Hürlimann’s “Europäische Kinderbücher in drei Jahrhunderten” (1959) [European children’s books of three centuries] (second edition in 1963; translated into English in 1967) it still holds true that the judgement on single titles, on the complete works of authors and even on epochs as a whole are more or less unhistorical.

With regard to a new view on the history of children's literature the East German scholars disposed of an advantage in time. Again Horst Kunze has to be named as initiator who, in 1970, discussed for the first time the problems of writing a history of German children's literature (Kunze 1970). Somewhat later he showed up as editor of a series which was initially planned to comprise 16 volumes. Entitled “Studien zur Geschichte der deutschen Kinder und Jugendliteratur” [Studies on the history of German children's literature] the first volumes were published in the middle of the seventies. Among the volumes published so far are: Heinz Wegehaupt “Vorstufen und Vorläufer der deutschen Kinder- und Jugendliteratur bis in die Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts” [First steps and signs of German children's literature up to the middle of the 18th century] (= vol. 1, 1977); Egon Schmidt “Die deutsche Kinder- und Jugendliteratur von der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts bis zum Anfang des 19. Jahrhunderts” [German children's literature from the middle of the 18th century up to the beginning of the 19th century] (= vol. 2, 1974); Joachim Schmidt “Volksdichtung und Kinderlektüre in der ersten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts” [Folk poetry and writings for children in the first half of the 19th century] (= vol. 3, 1977); Manfred Altner “Die deutsche Kinder- und Jugendliteratur zwischen Gründerzeit und Novemberrevolution” [German children's literature between ‚Gründerzeit’ and ‚Novemberrevolution’] (= vol. 5, 1981); Ingmar Dreher “Die deutsche proletarisch-revolutionäre Kinder- und Jugendliteratur zwischen 1918 und 1933” [German proletarian-revolutionary children's literature from 1918 to 1933] and Hansgeorg Meyer “Die deutsche Kinder- und Jugendliteratur 1933 bis 1945. Ein Versuch über die Entwicklungslinien” [German children's literature from 1933 to 1945. An attempt on the lines of development] (= vol. 6/7, 1975). In 1972 Gerhard Holtz-Baumert’s “Überhaupt brauchen wir eine sozialistische Literatur... Eine Skizze über die Anfänge sozialistischer deutscher Kinderliteratur” [We do need a socialist literature... An outline of the beginnings of socialist German children's literature] was published in the series “Resultate”.

Melchior Schedler was a pioneer of the new West German research. His writings “Kindertheater. Geschichte, Modelle, Projekte” [Children’s theatre. History, models, projects], 1972; “Schlachtet die blauen Elefanten. Bemerkungen über das Kinderstück” [Kill the blue elephants. Notes on children’s theatre play], 1973) which although they focused on dramatic plays for children represented a radical exposure of the history of children's literature as a whole. Another popular work was a collective volume entitled ”Die heimlichen Erzieher. Kinderbücher und politisches Lernen” [The hidden educators. Children’s books and political learning], edited by Dieter Richter und Jochen Vogt in 1994. Furthermore are worth mentioning the historical essays of a group of scholars from Bremen directed by Dieter Richter and Johannes Merkel who on the one hand treated the so-called proletarian-revolutionary children's literature of the Weimar Republic (“Das politische Kinderbuch. Eine aktuelle historische Dokumentation”, ed. by Dieter Richter, 1973), and on the other hand studied at a later stage the relevant literature of the 18th and 19th century: Dieter Richter/Johannes Merkel “Märchen, Phantasie und soziales Lernen”[Fairy tales, imagination and social learning], 1974; Andrea Kuhn “Tugend und Arbeit. Zur Sozialisation durch Kinder- und Jugendliteratur im 18. Jh.” [Virtue and labour. On social education through children's literature in the 18th century], 1975; Andrea Kuhn/Johannes Merkel “Sentimentalität und Geschäft. Zur Sozialisation durch Kinder- und Jugendliteratur im 19. Jh.” [Sentimentality and business. On social education through children's literature in the 19th century], 1977). In the years between 1977 and 1983 the series “Sammlung alter Kinderbücher” [Collection of old children’s books] was published with reprints of selected historical titles and single genre anthologies. The series was edited by Johannes Merkel and Dieter Richter and comprises a total of 8 volumes. – Most of the work on the history of children's literature done in the seventies – regardless whether this took place in the western or eastern part of Germany – is today of historical interest only since it is founded on scant sources. Furthermore it is based on ideological assumptions, which in the meantime have become questionable.

Parallel to the attempts mentioned a discussion on the principles of historical children's literature research developed among some elder scholars (Alfred C. Baumgärtner 1970, 1978 and 1980; Theodor Brüggemann 1980; Walter Scherf 1975). It was mostly left to a younger generation of scholars to put these principles into practice. Most of them had finished their university studies and participated in research projects under the direction of renown children's literature scholars – e.g. in the Frankfurt project on post war time (Dodderer 1988) or in the already mentioned Cologne project (Brüggemann 1982ff.). The results of this new children's literature research which was based upon extensive source studies became at first tangible in some thesis written in the seventies (Könneker 1977, Liebs 1977), then in numerous articles relevant to the subject and published in 1979 and 1982 in the last two volumes of the Doderer encyclopedia (Doderer 1975-82), in the Cologne handbooks on historical children's literature issued from 1982 onwards (Brüggemann 1982ff.), in single monographs of elder scholars (Richter 1987) and finally in a number of the already mentioned inaugural dissertations (Wilkending 1980, Pape 1981, Grenz 1981, Dahl 1986, Liebs 1986, Nassen 1987, Steinlein 1987, Wild 1987, Ewers 1989a) and theses (Dolle Weinkauff 1984, Seibert 1987, Brunken 1989 und Karrenbrock 1995). With regard to recently finished inaugural dissertations treating the history of children's literature those of Pech and Kaulen in particular have to be named (Pech 1998, Kaulen 2001).

To make the new look at the history of children's literature accessible for academic teaching Hans-Heino Ewers initiated an edition of anthologies treating each one epoch (Ewers 1980, Ewers 1984, Pech 1985, Ewers/Mieles 1995a). A special volume on the history of literature for girls completed the series (Wilkending 1994). In the middle of the eighties Reiner Wild succeeded in engaging a part of this generation of scholars for a further attempt to write a historical general survey (Wild 1986). Twelve scholars contributed to the study which was published in 1990 under the title “Geschichte der deutschen Kinder- und Jugendliteratur” [History of German children's literature]. The chapters on the Early Ages, Enlightenment, Romanticism, Biedermeier and on literature for girls were in particular highly satisfying whereas the contributions dealing with the late 19th and 20th century were generally perceived as provisional results (Wild 1990). Towards the end of the eighties and at the beginning of the nineties the younger generation of scholars had found its place within the scientific community and initiated since then a number of historical theses which was submitted by the next generation of young academics (a.o. Barth 1994, Josting 1995, Völpel 1996, Wulf 1996, Heesen 1997, Vogdt 1998, Pellatz 1999, Sauerbaum 1999, Krienke 2001, Dettmar 2002). In contrast to these works the history on Austrian children's literature (“Geschichte der österreichischen Kinder- und Jugendliteratur”) published in 1997 and mainly accomplished by Ernst Seibert provides a collection of essays of different scholars (Ewers/Seibert 1997).

The academic history of German children's literature criticism and of German children's literature studies has not yet been written although first steps have already been made. A number of the works of Gisela Wilkending are dealing with the pedagogy of literature in the middle and late 19th century (e.g. Wilkending 1997a and 1997b). In view of the imminent 100th anniversary of the so-called “Jugendschriftenbewegung” a special volume on the movement’s beginnings in Hamburg in 1890 was edited by Geralde Schmidt-Dumont in 1990 (Geralde Schmidt-Dumont 1990). On the occasion of its 30th anniversary the Frankfurt Institute for children's literature research organized in 1993 a widely noticed series of lectures on the history of children's literature theory and criticism covering the last one hundred years (documented in: Dolle-Weinkauff/Ewers 1996). A thesis treating the literary criticism of the review “Jugendschriften-Warte” up to the beginning of the ”Third Reich” (Azegami 1996) was published in 1996.

Worth mentioning in this context are also some contributions of American (and Australian) scholars dealing with German historical children’s literature. Cornelia Niekus-Moore worked on 16th and 17th century literature for girls (Niekus-Moore 1987) and Ruth B. Bottigheimer on children’s bibles from the outset of printing (Bottigheimer 1996). Extensive American research is done on fairy tales and the Brothers Grimm and on other German significant fairy tale collections of the early 19th century; I only name Jack Zipes (of his many contributions: 1983 and 1988), Ruth Bottigheimer (1987 and 1990), Maria Tatar (1990), and Christa Kamenetsky (1992). John D. Stahl and Luke Springman carried out studies focusing on children's literature of the Weimar Republic (Stahl 1986; Springman 1989) whereas Gerhard Fischer from Australia explored the youth drama of this period (Fischer 1996). In addition there are numerous contributions on Erich Kästner, for example the thesis of the Australian scholar Susanne Haywood (1998). Finally Kamenetsky published a monograph on “Children’s Literature in Hitler’s Germany” (1984).

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IV. Four basic Characteristics of German Historical Research

Recent German historical research can be characterized by four main aspects: First, recent research work has led to a completely new situation with regard to the sources and basic standards have been set: today it is no longer feasible to do historical children's literature research without carrying out extensive and meticulous first-hand studies on the literary sources. Most of the relevant contributions of the eighties and nineties meet these standards. The publications of catalogues of single collections have made accessible various stocks of old children's literature, which had been preserved so far in general and/or special libraries. In spite of that there are still many sources and stocks left to be catalogued, in some fields – e.g. historical children's theatre plays - only first steps have been made (Dettmar/Ewers 2001, Dettmar 2002).

Second, the scope of German historical research on children's literature is not limited to a small number of canonized works. Most contributions deal with a comparatively big corpus of titles which are to a great extent unknown today. One reason may be the fact that aside from a small number of titles – e.g. the Grimm Brothers' "Kinder- und Hausmärchen", Heinrich Hoffman's "Struwwelpeter" or Erich Kästner's "Emil und die Detektive" – the establishment of an undisputable canon of German children's books never took place. Most of the child books considered classics nowadays are translations, in particular from English. The question about canon and classics has been discussed almost exclusively within the field of comparative children's literature studies (Kümmerling-Meibauer 2000, O’Sullivan 2000), whereas for the historical research of German-language children's literature it has been of minor importance. In view of the fact that each history of children's literature has to highlight paradigmatic works, scholars in German-language areas are confronted with the problem of establishing by themselves a canon that lacks any societal and cultural basis (Seibert 1999). Attempts to introduce forgotten but innovative authors - e.g. A August Rode (1751-1837), Adolf Overbeck (1755-1821) or August Corrodi (1826-1885) - as key figures of the history of children's literature have not always been successful (Ewers 1992, 1998a, 1999).

Third and in consequence of the non-existence of an undisputable canon of German children's literature no dominant concept of childhood and children's literature is to be found. In contrast to what has, at least in my opinion, become characteristic of the Anglo-American research, German historical research avoided to give the romantic view of childhood and children's literature priority. German scholars tended on the contrary to reveal the heterogeneity of children's literature not only of different epochs but also of each individual epoch. Without denying the impact of the Romantic Movement (which was weaker in Germany than for example in England), scholarly works stressed the lasting relevance of the concepts of children's literature of the Enlightenment for the development of children's literature in the 19th and 20th century.

As a result of the call ”back to the sources” which can be considered constitutive for the image the discipline has of itself, German historical research was first of all engaged in investigations into its proper subject. Its academic reputation rested on primary research more than on the application of currently fashionable theories and methods. Including feminist and gender-theoretical (Grenz/Wilkending 1997) or multicultural (Nassen 2000) approaches, German research of historical children's literature tended to keep its distance with regard to certain postmodernisms, esp. to constructionist or deconstructionist positions. Generally the German-language research of children's literature is at present characterized by a pragmatic subject-oriented combination of well-tried methods.

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V. Scholarly Treatment of Contemporary Children's Literature

With regard to scholarly discussions on contemporary children's literature I want to confine myself to the development of the last three decades in West Germany. For a long time, only research done on historical children's literature had a good reputation in the academic world. Studies on contemporary children's literature were left to the former colleges of education and to the departments of the didactic of literature and pedagogy of reading. With regard to the normative implications, the new historical children's literature research disposed of an advantage in time: it had revealed the fundamental change children's literature had been subject to during the centuries; any attempt to assess its historical development will fail if meta-historical norms are applied. Dealing with contemporary children’s literature meant in contrast to this to develop norms and to derive from these standards criteria for the evaluation of literary works. A normative approach seemed thus adequate. West German criticism of the late fifties and sixties already based on this conviction; its main effort was to define the criteria of a “good” children’s book (“gutes Jugendbuch” - cf. Ewers in: Dolle-Weinkauff/Ewers 1996). In this respect the concepts of children's literature developed during and short after the student’s movement from 1968 did not bring about any changes. At this time standard setting theories were highly appreciated since the development of concepts of a new children's literature was at stake (Ewers 1995b; Dolle-Weinkauff in: Dolle-Weinkauff/Ewers 1996). Discussions focused on concepts of emancipating, anti-authoritarian, social critical or even political children's literature as well as on emancipating literature for girls or neo-realistic children’s theatre play, just to name a few. Works, which met the requirements helped to transform these utopian concepts into legitimizations of already existing literary tendencies. Thus, for example, the concept of an emancipating and neo-realistic children’s theatre plays gradually became a theoretical justification of the ‚Grips-Theatre‘ and its plays (Fischer 1988).

During the eighties a change of the debates on contemporary children's literature took place. Gradually concepts of a new children's literature and normative children's literature approaches were transformed into descriptive theories of single genres of the subject. These developments had their roots in the seventies insofar as the theorists at that time tended to set single genre standards. The new children's literature was more or less understood to be realistic and social-critical literature. For this reason these early contributions could be read retrospectively as theoretical genre analyses of the social realistic children's narration, of the realistic children’s play or of the problem-oriented children’s novel (Scheiner 1984 and 2000). The transformation of the discussions on general concepts into a special discourse on genres was substantially influenced by the rediscovery of the fantastic genre, which began in the middle of the seventies and was initiated first of all by Göte Klingberg, Gerhard Haas and Reinbert Tabbert (Klingberg 1969, 1974; Haas 1978, 1986; Tabbert 1980). The discourse on children's literature theories now took up again an orientation, which already in the fifties and sixties had proved to be the most promising one, i.e. genre orientation.

The progress of the discussions on children's literature genres becomes most obvious in the relevant handbooks, starting with the handbook of Gerhard Haas, published first in 1974 and then in its revised edition of 1984, followed by Dietrich Grünewald’s and Winfred Kaminski’s handbook ”Kinder- und Jugendmedien” [Media for children], edited in the same year, Carsten Gansel’s ”Praxishandbuch” [Practical handbook] of 1999 and Günter Lange’s ”Taschenbuch der Kinder- und Jugendliteratur” [Handbook of children's literature] which came out in 2000 (Haas 1974 u. 1984; Grünewald 1984; Gansel 1999; Lange 2000).These handbooks, however, represent only a small extract from a multitude of studies, monographs and collective volumes on individual genres of contemporary children's literature. Seen as a whole the research carried out on genres over the past two and a half decades - and in particular research done in the late eighties and in the nineties - has adequately perceived and described the current development of the subject (for a survey refer to the articles on genres in Baumgärtner 1995ff. and Lange 2000).

Debates most often focused on realistical genres, i.e. social-critical and problem-oriented approaches. During the late sixties extensive discussions were concerned with the new genres of literature for girls (for a survey see Grenz in: Lange 2000). The first research studies on the genre of fantastic literature, which continued the path opened by the relevant works published in the fifties and sixties, appeared some years later. It was, however, not until the beginning of the nineties, that research in the fantastic genre concentrated on modern fantastic literature published after 1970 (Haas 1995, Lehnert 1995). Finally and after some sporadic previous attempts a theory on the modern psychological children’s novel made its way in the early nineties (Steffens 1993 and in: Lange 2000). At the same time a theory on the genre of the modern adolescence novel was developed the scope of which covers not only sociological problem oriented literature but also subtle psychological depictions. In particular with respect to this genre translations from Anglo-American and Scandinavian literature into German language were of major importance (Ewers 1989b, 1998c; Gansel 1994, and Gansel in: Lange 2000).

Although some theoretical studies on the modern children's novel had appeared already in the seventies, it took a certain time before an elaborate theory of this genre developed. Since the beginning of the nineties children's literature criticism responded more directly to important changes in the field of children's literature. In the meantime a rather extensive discussion on the genre of modern, partly comic and partly tragic-comic familiy novel for children and teenager has come into existence (for a survey see Steffens 1998; and Daubert in: Lange 2000). In contrast to this approaches dealing with the modern (that means most often disturbed and broken) idyll in children's literature (Ewers 1995b, 273, 1995c, 46f.) are much less elaborate (Lypp 1995). This is also true for comic genres which saw a revival. The discourse on the most recent development of the post-modern youth novel has proved to be extremely promising; with no doubt this field represents one of most exciting current research areas (Kaulen 1999a, 1999b; Schulte 1998, 1999).

Debates on children's literature treating contemporary history are dating back to the sixties whereby titles dealing with the “Third Reich” and the “Holocaust” have always been most prominent. For more than four decades Malte Dahrendorf has been the leading scholar in this area. After having carried on a controversy with the Israeli scholar Zohar Shavit (Dahrendorf/Shavit 1988) and after numerous specific articles (e.g. Dahrendorf 1996) Dahrendorf has recently again edited a collective volume on this topic (Dahrendorf 1999). In addition to Dahrendorf the contributions of Rüdiger Steinlein (1995) and Gabriele von Glasenapp (1999) are worth mentioning as are the respective monographs of the German pedagogue Michael Wermke (1999) and of the English scholar Gillian Lathey (1999). Generally the discourse in question here focuses on themes more than on genres. In spite of this overall tendency Glasenapp has recently submitted a new study which treats the historical and contemporary novel for young readers by taking particularly into account the historical development of genres (von Glasenapp 2001).

These discussions on children's literature, however, did not cover all existing genres belonging to the subject. Research on the history of German poetry for children (Franz/Gärtner 1996, Vogdt 1998, Kliewer 1999) or on the history of the picture book and the comic (Dolle-Weinkauff 1990, Ries 1992, Thiele 2000) still needs to be completed. In some fields so far only little research has been carried out. Still missing is for example a theory of the modern ethnological Indian novel, which in my mind although almost entirely neglected by the literary criticism represents one of the most exciting genres of modern youth literature (here in particular the respective works of Käthe Recheis have to be named). A discrepancy can also be observed between the theoretical writings on children's theatre and the latest developments the genre faced in practice. - Summarizing the existing studies, the direction of the change to which the poetical genre theory has been subject to becomes obvious. Being at the beginning a normative concept it gradually transformed into a descriptive and historical approach, which for the most part, at least in my view, came to an end in the nineties

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VI. Directions of Research

Since about 1996 discussions on contemporary children's literature took a new direction (Ewers 1997 u. 2000a; Gansel 2000 u. 2001). Along with the lasting discussions of the demanding genres, debates gradually picked up a number of new issues. Thus children's literature is now seen in the context of the new media whereby, next to film and television, the computer and the Internet gain more and more importance (Heidtmann 1996, J. Wermke 1997, Ewers 1998b). The subject as a whole is much influenced by the aesthetic of the new media, which is partly simply imitated and partly critically parodied (Ewers 2000a, 11ff.). Additionally it loses to a considerable extent its independence and becomes part of a crossover structure, which, partially from the start, has been designed as a multimedia mix (Ewers 1998b, 2001a). Only recently the literary criticism began to study serial and multimedia narratives and the so-called “tie-in-novelizations” (Heidtmann 1995 and 1997) and how children, who grow up with these media, react upon these offers (Nefzer 2000). Furthermore adaptations of children’s books for computer games have become of interest (Heidtmann 1999, Dolle-Weinkauff 2000, Rank 2000). Parallel to the debates on the media a new discussion on popular children's literature has developed (Ewers 2001b). However, research on the genres of the new entertainment culture, i.e. soap operas, sitcoms, space operas, horror and mystery films and so forth (cf. Gansel 1998a u. 1998b), is still at its very beginning. Due to the fact that the multimedia oriented entertainment culture and in particular film and television partially underline the traditional separation between high and popular culture, the German research on children's literature also tackles cultural studies issues.

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VII. Basic Research

Compared to the ongoing research done on single issues (cf. Schilcher 2001) and genres (cf. Patzelt 2001) within the field of children's literature only little investigation into the basics of the subject is undertaken. After first approaches developed by Theodor Brüggemann in the late sixties (Brüggemann 1977), the works of the Swedish scholar Göte Klingberg on theoretical basic questions gain much importance in the seventies whereby his interpretation of children's literature as being literature adapted to the young readers proved to be central (Klingberg 1973). Leading (West German) theorists in this area, with respect to the seventies and the eighties, are Malte Dahrendorf and Maria Lypp. Dahrendorf is not only engaged into the (open and masked) ideological contents of children's literature but also tries to establish a connection between the theories on children's literature and the field of psychological development (Dahrendorf 1980). In a much-noticed contribution written in 1975 Maria Lypp is dealing with the asymmetrical nature of the literary communication within children's literature (in Lypp 2000). In her further theoretical studies on poetry she refers to the Russian formalist approaches as for example to Jurij M. Lotman’s writings on semiotics. Lypp seeks to demonstrate that children's literature is a step-like structured literature of different stages of simplicity and complexity, which also helps the reader to acquire a literary competence (Lypp 1984). In the late eighties and early nineties an intensified lecture of the theoretical works of the Israeli scholar Zohar Shavit (“Poetics of Children’s Literature”, 1986) led to a more extensive application of semiotic and system oriented theoretical approaches (Ewers 1994, Gansel 1995).

In the nineties Hans-Heino Ewers designed – with certain parallels to Barbara Wall’s “The Narrator’s Voice” of 1991 – a theory of children's literature communication as a system of several overlapping circles of communication in the centre of which he placed the underlying communication between the author and the adult mediator which he clearly distinguishes from the communication between the author and the young as well as the adult reader (Ewers 1990; final version Ewers 2000b, 93-127). At the same time he seeks to apply Roman Jacobson’s functionalistic theory on folklore developed in 1929 to children's literature (Ewers 1990; final version Ewers 2000b, 129-146). Thereby Ewers intended to make useful the theories on orality and literacy for the comprehension of children's literature as being a literature placed between the spoken and the written word (Ewers 1989a; Ewers 2000b, 256-265). Apart from that Ewers repeatedly looked for a pragmatic definition of children's literature which, free from any open or hidden norms, can also serve as a practicable basis for any historical research (Ewers 2000b, 15-39). Ewers summarized his basic theoretical considerations developed in the late eighties and nineties in his work “Children's literature. An introduction into the fundamental structures of children's literature as a system of actions and symbols” published in 2000 (second revised edition in preparation), which is conceived as a counterpart to Klingberg’s monograph and intends to further develop the latter’s concept of adaptation to the young reader (Ewers 2000b, 199-242).

Within the children’s literature research of German-language countries a specific narratology still needs to be developed. Most research carried out in this subject was part of the research on genres (Bernstorff 1977), what is best illustrated by Wilhelm Steffens' recent works on the modern children’s novels (Steffens 1995). – It was not until the beginning of the nineties, as already mentioned above, that the field of comparative studies in children's literature became an independent discipline which is particularly due to the extensive studies done by Emer O’Sullivan at the Frankfurt Institute for children's literature research. Represented by a younger generation of scholars – besides O’Sullivan Gertrud Lehnert, Bettina Kümmerling-Meibauer and Astrid Surmatz – its main areas of interest are, among others, the already mentioned issue of a canon of classical works and translation studies (Kümmerling-Meibauer 1995, O Sullivan in: Dolle-Weinkauff/Ewers 1996, for a general survey see O’Sullivan 2000).

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VII. Institutions

The following brief presentation of the main German research centres may give a general survey on the current research carried out on children's literature. First may be named the “Institute for children's literature research” founded by Klaus Doderer in 1963 and directed by Hans-Heino Ewers since 1990. As part of the department of German studies of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe university of Frankfurt/Main it houses several archives (a. o. comics, computer discs and audio books) and disposes of one of the major collections of children’s books in the German-language area. It is the only institution, which confers the academic degree Master of Arts (www.uni-frankfurt.de/fb10/jubufo). – In Cologne Theodor Brüggemann founded in the seventies as part of the local college of education a research centre of the history of children's literature, which has been directed since 1988 by Bettina Hurrelmann and since 1993 by the latter together with Gisela Wilkending. Today the centre belongs to the department of educational sciences of the university of Cologne and is called “Arbeitsstelle für Leseforschung und Kinder- und Jugendmedien/ALEKI” [Centre for the research on reading and children’s media]. Apart from several other projects the 5th handbook of children's literature covering the period from 1850 to 1900 is currently under work (www.aleki.uni-koeln.de). – In 1983 Gerhard Haas and Bernhard Rank founded a “reading centre” which became the “Lesezentrum der Pädagogischen Hochschule Heidelberg” [Reading centre of the college of education of Heidelberg] in 1987 and regularly initiates seminars, exhibitions and project related investigations (www.ph-heidelberg.de/org/lz). – At the university of Oldenburg Jens Thiele founded in 1997 the interdisclipinary “Oldenburger Forschungsstelle Kinder- und Jugendliteratur/OLFOKI” [Oldenburg research centre of children's literature] which closely cooperates with the local university library, which houses a vast collection of children’s books (www.uni-oldenburg.de/olfoki). –

In the mid of the eighties the “Arbeitsgemeinschaft Kinder- und Jugendliteraturforschung” [Study group of children's literature research] was founded which annually organized a scientific conference. In the meantime its name has changed into “Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendliteraturforschung” [Association for the research on children's literature] and the currently about 140 members closely work together with the Austrian association (“Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendliteraturforschung”) established in 2000. Both associations edit the yearbook of children's literature research the first volume of which appeared in 1995. A general bibliography, which is part of this annual publication and composed by the Frankfurt Institute for children's literature research comprises nearly every contribution on the subject published in the year before (generally appr. 1600 titles). – The “Deutsche Akademie für Kinder- und Jugendliteratur e.V.” [German Academy of children's literature] located in Volkach (near Würzburg) also initiates conferences and edits a series of scientific studies (in the meantime over 26 volumes have been published). – The “Internationales Institut für Jugendliteratur und Leseforschung” [International institute for children's literature and research on reading], situated in Vienna and founded by Richard Bamberger in 1965 is a legally completely independent institution and not affiliated to a university (www.kidlit@netway.at). The same is true for the 1968 founded Zurich Swiss institute of children's literature / Johanna Spyri-Foundation - “Schweizerisches Jugendbuch-Institut (Johanna Spyri-Stiftung) – the founder of which is Franz Caspar (www.sji.ch/d/).

A slightly modified version of this article has been published in: Children's Literature Association Quarterly (2002-2003), vol. 27, no. 3.

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Bibliographies, Encyclopedias, Manuals, and Yearbooks

Baumgärtner, Alfred Clemens/Pleticha, Heinrich; since 1999: Franz, Kurt/Lange, Günter/Payrhuber, Franz-Josef Hrsg. (1995ff.): Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Ein Lexikon [loose-leaf form edition]. Meitingen: Corian.

Brüggemann, Theodor/Brunken, Otto (1987): Handbuch zur Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Vom Beginn des Buchdrucks bis 1570. Stuttgart: Metzler.

Brüggemann, Theodor/Brunken, Otto (1991): Handbuch zur Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Von 1570 bis 1750. Stuttgart: Metzler.

Brüggemann, Theodor / Ewers, Hans-Heino (1982): Handbuch zur Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Von 1750 bis 1800. Stuttgart: Metzler.

Brunken, Otto / Hurrelmann, Bettina / Pech, Klaus-Ulrich (1997): Handbuch zur Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Von 1800 bis 1850. Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler

Doderer, Klaus, ed. (1975-1982): Lexikon der Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Personen-, Länder- und Sachartikel zu Geschichte und Gegenwart der Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. vol. 1-4. Weinheim: Beltz

Doderer, Klaus, ed. (1988): Zwischen Trümmer und Wohlstand. Literatur der Jugend 1945-1960). Weinheim, Basel: Beltz.

Düsterdieck, Peter (1985): Die Sammlung Hobrecker der Universitätsbibliothek Braunschweig. 2 vol. München u.a.: Saur.

Gansel, Carsten (1999): Moderne Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Ein Praxishandbuch für den Unterricht. Berlin: Cornelsen,

Grünewald, Dietrich, Winfred Kaminski, eds. (1984): Kinder- und Jugendmedien. Ein Handbuch für die Praxis. Weinheim, Basel: Beltz.

Haas, Gerhard, ed. (1974): Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Zur Typologie und Funktion einer literarischen Gattung. Stuttgart: Reclam; 2nd edition 1976

Haas, Gerhard, ed. (1984): Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Ein Handbuch. 3rd, completely revised edition Stuttgart: Reclam,

Kinder- und Jugendliteraturforschung 1994/95[-2000/2001] (1995ff.). With a general bibliography of works published in 1994 [- 2001]. Vol. 1-7. [appears annually] ed. by Hans-Heino Ewers, Ulrich Nassen, Karin Richter, Rüdiger Steinlein; since 2001 also: Carola Pohlmann. Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler.

Klotz, Aiga (1990 – 2000): Kinder- und Jugendliteratur in Deutschland 1840 - 1950. General survey of German-language publications. Vol.1-7. Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler.

Kümmerling-Meibauer, Bettina (1999): Klassiker der Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Ein internationales Lexikon. 2 vol. Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler.

Lange, Günter, ed. (2000): Taschenbuch der Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. vol. 1: Grundlagen und Gattungen. vol. 2: Medien, Themen, Poetik, Produktion, Rezeption, Didaktik. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider.

Lexikon der österreichischen Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. I: Autoren und Übersetzer. II: Illustratoren. vol. 1-2. ed. by: Internationales Institut für Jugendliteratur und Leseforschung, Karin Sollat (lectorate). Wien: Buchkultur 1994 - 1995

Ries, Hans (1992): Illustration und Illustratoren des Kinder- und Jugendbuchs im deutschsprachigen Raum 1871 - 1914. Das Bildangebot der Wilhelminischen Zeit, Geschichte und Ästhetik der Original- und Drucktechniken. Internationales Lexikon der Illustratoren, Bibliographie ihrer Arbeiten in deutschsprachigen Büchern und Zeitschriften, auf Bilderbogen und Wandtafeln. Osnabrück: Wenner.

Shavit, Zohar/Ewers, Hans-Heino in cooperation with Annegret Völpel und Ran HaCohen and with the assistance of Dieter Richter (1996): Deutsch-jüdische Kinder- und Jugendliteratur von der Haskala bis 1945. Die deutsch- und hebräischsprachigen Schriften des deutschsprachigen Raums. Ein bibliographisches Handbuch. Stuttgart: Metzler.

Wegehaupt, Heinz (1979): Alte deutsche Kinderbücher. Bibliographie 1507 - 1850. At the same time inventory of the section of children's literature of the ‘Deutsche Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin’. vol.[1]. Berlin: Kinderbuchverlag; Hamburg: Hauswedell.

Wegehaupt, Heinz (1985): Alte deutsche Kinderbücher. Bibliographie 1851 - 1900. At the same time inventory of the section of children's literature of the ‘Deutsche Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin’. vol.[2]. Berlin: Kinderbuchverlag; Hamburg: Hauswedell.

Wegehaupt, Heinz (2000): Alte deutsche Kinderbücher III. Bibliographie 1524-1900. Stuttgart: Metzler.

Weilenmann, Claudia (1993): Annotierte Bibliographie der Schweizer Kinder- und Jugendliteratur von 1750 bis 1900. Bibliographie annotée de livres suisses pour l'enfance et la jeunesse de 1750 à 1900. ed. by: Schweizerisches Jugendbuch-Institut, Zürich. Stuttgart: Metzler

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Historical research

Azegami, Taiji (1996): Die Jugendschriften-Warte. Von ihrer Gründung bis zu den Anfängen des ‚Dritten Reiches‘. Frankfurt/Main u.a.: Lang.

Barth, Susanne (1994): Jungfrauenzucht. Literaturwissenschaftliche und pädagogische Studien Mädchenerziehungsliteratur zwischen 1200 und 1600. Stuttgart.

Baumgärtner, Alfred Clemens (1970): Gibt es eine Geschichtsschreibung der deutschen Jugendliteratur? Versuch einer Bilanz anhand eines exemplarischen Falles. In: Jugendliteraturforschung international. Schwerpunke und Richtungen. Frankfurter Kolloquium 1969. ed. by Klaus Doderer, Weinheim u.a., 81-94.

Baumgärtner, Alfred Clemens (1978): Zur Lage der historischen Kinderbuchforschung. In: Das gute Jugendbuch, vol. 28., no. 2, 65-69.

Baumgärtner, Alfred Clemens, ed. (1980): Ansätze historischer Kinder- und Jugendbuchforschung. Baltmannsweiler.

Bottigheimer, Ruth B. (1987): Grimms Bad Girls & Bold Boys. The Moral & and Social Vision of the Tales. New Haven and London: Yale UP.

Bottigheimer, Ruth B. (1990): Ludwig Bechstein’s Fairy Tales: Ninetheenth Century Bestsellers and Bürgerlichkeit. In: Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der deutschen Literatur 15, no. 2, 55-88.

Bottigheimer, Ruth B. (1996): The Bible for Children. From the Age of Gutenberg to the Present. New Haven and London: Yale UP.

Brüggemann, Theodor (1980): Geschichte der Kinder- und Jugendliteratur 1750-1800. Werkstattbericht über ein Forschungsprojekt. In: Ansätze historischer Kinder- und Jugendbuchforschung. Ed. by A.C. Baumgärtner. Baltmannsweiler, 10-41.

Brunken, Otto (1989): Der Kinder Spiegel. Studien zu Gattungen und Funktionen der frühen Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Thesis. Frankfurt/Main.

Dahl, Erhard (1986): Die Entstehung der phantastischen Kinder- und Jugenderzählung in England. Paderborn u.a.: Schöningh.

Dettmar, Ute/Ewers, Hans-Heino (2001): Anmerkungen zum Stand der historischen Kindertheaterforschung. Mit einem Anhang zu den Kinderschauspielen August Rodes (1776). In: Theater und Musik für Kinder. Hrsg.v. Gunter Reiß. Frankfurt/Main u.a.: Lang, 13-49.

Dettmar, Ute (2002): Das Drama der Familienkindheit. Der Anteil des Kinderschauspiels am Familiendrama des späten 18. ud frühen 19. Jahrhunderts. München: Fink.

Dolle-Weinkauff, Bernd (1984): Das Märchen in der proletarisch-revolutionären Kinder- und Jugendliteratur der Weimarar Republik 1918-1933. Frankfurt/Main: dipa.

Dolle-Weinkauff (1990): Comics. Geschichte einer populären Literaturform in Deutschland seit 1945. Weinheim, Basel: Beltz.

Dolle-Weinkauff, Bernd/Ewers, Hans-Heino, eds. (1996): Theorien der Jugendlektüre. Beiträge zur Kinder- und Jugendliteraturkritik seit Heinrich Wolgast. Weinheim, München.

Ewers, Hans-Heino, ed. (1980): Kinder- und Jugendliteratur der Aufklärung. Eine Textsammlung. Stuttgart: Reclam.

Ewers, Hans-Heino, ed. (1984): Kinder- und Jugendliteratur der Romantik. Eine Textsammlung.. Stuttgart: Reclam.

Ewers, Hans-Heino (1989a): Kindheit als poetische Daseinsform. Studien zur Entstehung der romantischen Kindheitsutopie im 18. Jahrhundert. Herder, Jean Paul, Novalis und Tieck. München: Fink.

Ewers, Hans-Heino (1992): "Hier spricht, wenn ich's gut gemacht habe, wirklich ein Kind.“ Anmerkungen zu Theorie und Geschichte antiautoritärer Kinder- und Jugendliteratur". In: Informationen Jugendliteratur und Medien 44, vol. 4, 165-179.

Ewers, Hans-Heino/Mieles, Myriam, eds.(1995a): Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Von der Gründerzeit bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg. Eine Textsammlung. Stuttgart: Reclam.

Ewers, Hans-Heino (1998a): "Sie hüpfen fröhlich herum und freuen sich.“ August Rodes Kinderschauspiele im Kontext von Empfindsamkeit und Philanthropismus". In: Jahrbuch der Jean-Paul-Gesellschaft 1997/1998, Bayreuth, 221-232.

Ewers, Hans-Heino (1999): August Corrodi (1826-1885) - Anmerkungen zu einem vergessenen schweizerischen Kinderliteraten. In: Nebenan. Der Anteil der Schweiz an der deutschsprachigen Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Ed. by: Schweizerischen Jugendbuch-Institut. Zürich: Chronos, 159-172.

Ewers, Hans-Heino/Seibert, Ernst, eds. (1997): Geschichte der österreichischen Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Von 1800 bis zur Gegenwart. Wien: Buchkultur.

Fischer, Gerhard (1996): Neusachliche Jugendliche? Jugend in Dramen der Weimarer Republik von Bruckner, Toller, Horvath und Lampel. In: Jugend und Theater. Ed. by Jörg Richard. Frankfurt/Main: dipa, 30-58.

Grenz, Dagmar (1981): Mädchenliteratur. Von den moralisch-belehrenden Schriften im 18. Jahrhundert bis zur Herausbildung der Backfischliteratur im 19. Jahrhundert. Stuttgart: Metzler.

Grenz, Dagmar/Wilkending, Gisela, eds. (1997): Geschichte der Mädchenlektüre. Mädchenliteratur und die gesellschaftliche Situation der Frauen vom 18. Jahrhundert bis zur Gegenwart. Weinheim, München: Juventa.

Haywood, Susanne (1998): Kinderliteratur als Zeitdokument. Alltagsnormalität der Weimarer Republik in Erich Kästners Kinderromanen. Frankfurt/Main u.a.: Lang.

Heesen, Anke te (1997): Der Weltkasten. Die Geschichte einer Bilderenzyklopädie aus dem 18. Jahrhundert. Göttingen: Wallstein.

Josting, Petra (1995): Der Jugendschrifttumskampf des Nationalsozialistischen Lehrerbundes. Hildesheim: Olms.

Kaulen, Heinrich (2001): Kinderlieder, Lehrstücke, Parabeln. Literatur für Kinder und Jugendliche bei Bertolt Brecht. Inaugural dissertation, Päd. Hochschule Hannover.

Karrenbrock, Helga (1995): Märchenkinder – Zeitgenossen. Untersuchungen zur Kinderliteratur der Weimarer Republik. Stuttgart: M&P.

Könneker, Marie-Louise: Dr. Heinrich (1977): Hoffmanns „Struwwelpeter“ Untersuchungen zur Entstehungs- und Funktionsgeschichte eines bürgerlichen Bilderbuchs. Stuttgart: Metzler.

Krienke, Jutta (2001): „Liebste Freundin! Ich will dir gleich schreiben...“ Zur Ausbildung des unmittelbaren Erzählens am Beispiel der Verwendung des Briefes in der Kinderliteratur des 19. Jahrhunderts. Frankfurt/Main u.a.: Lang.

Kunze, Horst (1970): Probleme bei der Erarbeitung einer Geschichte der deutschen Kinderliteratur. In: Jugendliteraturforschung international. Schwerpunke und Richtungen. Frankfurter Kolloquium 1969. Ed. by Klaus Doderer, Weinheim u.a.: Beltz, 95-115.

Liebs, Elke (1977) Die pädagogische Insel. Studien zur Rezeption des Robinson Crusoe“ in deutschen Jugendbearbeitungen. Stuttgart: Metzler.

Liebs, Elke (1986): Kindheit und Tod. Der Rattenfänger-Mythos als Beitrag zu einer Kulturgeschichte der Kindheit. München: Fink.

Nassen, Ulrich (1987): Jugend, Buch und Konjunktur 1933-1945. Studien zum Ideologiepotential des genuin nationalsozialistischen und des konjunkturellen „Jugendschrifttums“. München: Fink.

Niekus-Moore, Cornelia (1987): The Maiden’s Mirror. Reading Material for German Girls in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century. Wiesbaden: Harassowitz.

Pape, Walter(1981): Das literarische Kinderbuch. Studien zur Entstehung und Typologie. Berlin u.a.: de Gruyter.

Pech, Klaus-Ulrich, eds. (1985): Kinder- und Jugendliteratur vom Biedermeier bis zum Realismus. Eine Textsammlung. Stuttgart: Reclam.

Pech, Klaus Ulrich (1998): Technik im Jugendbuch. Sozialgeschichte populärwissenschaftlicher Jugendliteratur im 19. Jahrhundert. Weinheim, München: Juventa.

Pellatz, Susanne (1999): Körperbilder in Mädchenratgebern. Pubertätslektüre zur Zeit der Formung bürgerlicher Kultur. Weinheim, München: Juventa.

Pohlmann, Carola (2001): Bibliographien zur historischen deutschsprachigen Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. In: Kinder- und Jugendliteraturforschung 2000/2001, Stuttgart: Metzler, 135-150.

Richter, Dieter (1997): Das fremde Kind. Zur Entstehung der Kindheitsbilder des bürgerlichen Zeitalters. Frankfurt/Main: Fischer.

Sauerbaum, Evelyn (1999): Selbstentfaltung zwischen Autonomie und Intimität. Literarische Darstellungen weiblicher Adoleszenz im Mädchenbuch und Frauenroman. Frankfurt/Main u.a.: Lang.

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Brüggemann, Theodor (1977): Literaturtheoretische Grundlagen des Kinder- und Jugendschrifttums [1966]. In: Aspekte der erzählenden Jugendliteratur. Ed. by Ernst G. Bernstorff. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider-Verl., 14-34.

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Dahrendorf, Malte (1999): Die Darstellung des Holocaust in der Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Weinheim: Juventa.

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Ewers, Hans-Heino (1994): Theorie der Kinderliteratur zwischen Systemtheorie und Poetologie. Eine Auseinandersetzung mit Zohar Shavit und Maria Lypp. In: Kinderliteratuir im interkulturellen Prozess. Ed. by Hans-Heino Ewers et al. Stuttgart: Metzler, 16-26.

Ewers, Hans-Heino (1995b): Themen-, Formen- und Funktionswandel der westdeutschen Kinderliteratur seit Ende der 60er, Anfang der 70er Jahre. In: Zeitschrift für Germanistik. New Edition. Vol. V, no. 2, 257-278.

Ewers, Hans-Heino (1995c): Veränderte kindliche Lebenswelten im Spiegel der Kinderliteratur der Gegenwart. In: Veränderte Kindheit in der aktuellen Kinderliteratur. Ed. by Hannelore Daubert and Hans-Heino Ewers, Braunschweig: Westermann, 35-48.

Ewers, Hans-Heino (1997): Grenzverwischungen und Grenzüberschreitungen. Die Kinder- und Jugendliteratur auf dem Weg zu einer neuen Identität. In: JuLit. vol. 3, 4-19.

Ewers, Hans-Heino (1998b): Funktionswandel der Kinder- und Jugendliteratur in der Mediengesellschaft. Zur Entstehung neuer Buchgattungen und neuer literarischer Funktionstypen. In: Deutschunterricht (Berlin) 51, vol. 4, 170-181. Shortened version: Changing Functions of Children’s Literature. New Book Genres and Literary Functions. - In: Bookbird 38 (2000), no. 1, 6-11.

Ewers, Hans-Heino (1998c): Vom „guten Jugendbuch“ zur modernen Jugendliteratur. Jugendliterarische Veränderungen seit den 70er Jahren - eine Bestandsaufnahme. In: Wege zur Kultur. Perspektiven für einen integrativen Deutschunterricht. Ed. by Ralph Köhnen. Frankfurt a.M. u.a.: Lang, 385-399.

Ewers, Hans-Heino (2000a): Auf der Suche nach den Umrissen einer zukünftigen Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Ein Versuch, die gegenwärtigen kinder- und jugendliterarischen Veränderungen einzuschätzen. In: Kinder- und Jugendliteratur zur Jahrtausendwende. Autoren – Themen – Vermittlung. Ed. by Kurt Franz, Günter Lange und Franz-Josef Payrhuber. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider, 2-21.

Ewers, Hans-Heino (2000b): Literatur für Kinder und Jugendliche. Eine Einführung in grundlegende Aspekte des Handlungs- und Symbolsystems ‚Kinder- und Jugendliteratur‘. München: Fink.

Ewers, Hans-Heino (2001a): Kinder- und Jugendliteratur im Zeitalter multimedialen Entertainements. In: Lesen mit und ohne Netz. Hessischer Bibliothekstag 2001 in Kassel. Ed. by: Deutscher Bibliotheksverband, Landesverband Hessen. Red. Peter Reuter. Frankfurt/Main, 29-56.

Ewers, Hans-Heino (2001b): Unterhaltung – eine ernste Angelegenheit. Eine Aufforderung, sich mit einem alten Reizthema der Literaturpädagogik neu zu befassen. In: Tausend und ein Buch. Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. No. 1, 4-11.

Fischer, Gerhard (1988): From Escapist Fantasy to Social Imagination: Notes on the Development of an Emancipatory Theatre für Chilrdren. In: The Germanic Review vol. LXIII, no.1, 19-32

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Gansel, Carsten (1994): Jugendliteratur und jugendkultureller Wandel. In: Jugendkultur im Adoleszenzroman. Ed. By Hans-Heino Ewers. Weinheim, München: Juventa, 2nd ed. 1997, 13-42.

Gansel, Carsten (1995): Systemtheorie und Kinder- und Jugendliteraturforschung. In: Kinder- und Jugendliteraturforschung 1994/95. Stuttgart: Metzler, 25-42.

Gansel, Carsten (1998a): Vom Märchen zur Discworld-Novel. Phantastisches und Märchenhaftes in der aktuellen Literatur für Kinder- und Jugendliche. In: Deutschunterricht (Berlin) 51, no. 12, 597-607

Gansel, Carsten (1998b): Von Gespenstern, Cyberspace und Abgründen des Ich. Zu Aspekten von Spannung und Phantastik im Subsystem Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. In: Tausend und ein Buch. No. 2, 15-26, and no. 3, 4-14.

Gansel, Carsten (2000): Unendliche Geschichten und Pluralität der Formen. Literatur für Kinder und junge Leser im vergangenen Jahrhundert. In: Julit 26, no. 1, 3-22.

Gansel, Carsten (2001): Pluralität und Grenzüberschreitung oder Von der (neuen) Lust am Erzählen in der Kinder- und Jugendliteratur und in der Allgemeinliteratur. In: Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Lesen – Verstehen – Vermitteln. Ed. by Gabriele Cromme and Günter Lange. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider, 317-329.

Glasenapp, Gabriele von (1999): Ansichten und Kontroversen über Kinder- und Jugendliteratur zum Thema Nationalsozialismus und Holocaust. In: Kinder- und Jugendliteraturforschung 1998/1999. Stuttgart: Metzler, 141-181.

Glasenapp, Gabriele von (2001): Die Zeitalter werden besichtigt. Zur Inszenierung von Geschichte in der neueren historischen Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. In: Kinder- und Jugendliteraturforschung 2000/2001. Stuttgart: Metzler, 99-115.

Haas, Gerhard (1978): struktur und funktion der phantastischen literatur. In: Wirkendes Wort vol. 28, no. 5, 340-356.

Haas, Gerhard (1986),: Phantastische Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Überlegungen zu einer mehrperspektivischen Annäherung. In: Schiefertafel vol. 9, no. 1, 36-49.

Haas, Gerhard (1995): Moderne Inhalte und Formen des Erzählens in der phantastischen Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. In: Moderne Formen des Erzählens in der Kinder- und Jugendliteratur der Gegenwart unter literarischen und didaktischen Aspekten. Ed. by Günter Lange und Wilhelm Steffens. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 63-82.

Heidtmann, Horst (1995): Neue Formen seriellen Erzählens für junge Zuschauer". In: Beiträge Jugendliteratur und Medien, no. 1, 43-52.

Heidtmann, Horst( 1996): Das Kinder- und Jugendbuch im Zeitalter der elektronischen Medien. Überlegungen zum Formen- und Funktionswandel von Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. In: JuLit no. 1, 5-15.

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Heidtmann Horst (1998): Das Institut für angewandte Kindermedienforschung (IfaK an der Hochschule für Bibliotheks und Informationswesen/Fachhochschule Stuttgart. In: Kinder- und Jugendliteraturforschung 1997/1998. Stuttgart: Metzler, 10-14.

Heidtmann, Horst (1999): Digital, multimedial, interaktiv. Kinder- und Jugendliteratur auf CD-Rom und im Internet. In: Kinder- und Jugendliteratur in Deutschland. Ed. by Renate Raecke. München: Arbeitskreis für Jugendliteratur, 262-267.

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Klingberg, Göte (1974): Die phantastische Kinder- und Jugenderzählung. In: Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Zur Typologie und Funktion einer literarischen Gattung. Ed. by Gerhard Haas. Stuttgart: Reclam, 220-241.

Kümmerling-Meibauer, Bettina (1995): Comparing Children’s Literature. In: Compar(a)ison 2, 5-18.

Lange, Günter: Adoleszenzroman. In: Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Ein Lexikon. Autoren, Illustratoren, Verlage, Begriffe. [loose-leaf form edition]. Meitingen: Corian, 3rd supplement 1997, 1-22

Lange, Günter, ed.: Taschenbuch der Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. vol. 1: Grundlagen und Gattunge. vol. 2: Medien, Themen, Poetik, Produktion, Rezeption, Didaktik. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider, 2000

Lathey, Gillian (1999): The Impossible Legacy. Identity and Purpose in Autobiographical children's Literature Set in the Third Reich and the Second World War. Bern, u.a.: Lang.

Lehnert, Gertrud (1995): Phantastisches Erzählen seit den 70er Jahren. Zu einem kinderliterarischen Paradigmenwechsel. In: Zeitschrift für Germanistik. New Edition. Vol. V, no. 2, 279-289.

Lypp, Maria (1984): Einfachheit als Kategorie der Kinderliteratur. Frankfurt/Main: dipa.

Lypp, Maria (1995): Komische Literatur aus der BRD für Leser am Ende der Kindheit. In: Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Material. Ed. by Malte Dahrendorf. Berlin: Volk und Wissen, , 171-179

Lypp, Maria (2000): Vom Kaspar zum König. Studien zur Kinderliteratur. Frankfurt/Main u.a.: Lang.

Mattenklott, Gundel (1989): Zauberkreide. Kinderliteratur seit 1945. Stuttgart: Metzler.

Nassen, Ulrich, Hrsg.(2000): Konfigurationen des Fremden in der Kinder- und Jugendliteratur nach 1945. München: Iudicium.

Nefzer, Ina (2000): Lesen und Vorstellungsbildung in multimedialen Kontexten. Die zunehmende Ausdifferenzierung von Medienverbundangeboten am Beispiel kinderliterarischer Klassiker. In: Kinder- und Jugendliteraturforschung 99/2000. Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler, 67-78.

O’Sullivan, Emer (2000): Kinderliterarische Komparatistik. Heidelberg: C. Winter.

Patzelt, Birgit (2001): Phantastische Kinder- und Jugendliteratur der 80er und 90er Jahre. Frankfurt/Main u.a.: Lang.

Rank, Bernhard (2000): Formen und Veränderungen des Erzählens in Bearbeitungen kinderliterarischer Szenarien auf CD-ROM. In: Kinder – Literatur – neue Medien. Ed. by Karin Richter u. Sabine Riemann. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider, 198-216.

Scheiner, Peter (1984): Realistische Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. In: Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Ein Handbuch. Ed. by Gerhard Haas, Stuttgart: Reclam, 37-62.

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Schilcher, Anita (2001): Geschlechtsrollen, Familie, Freundschaft und Liebe in der Kinderliteratur der 90er Jahre. Frankfurt/Main u.a.: Lang.

Schulte, Miriam (1998): Popkultur im Jugendroman. Stil, Spaß und Subversion zwischen teen spirit und Pädagogik. In: Kinder- und Jugendliteraturforschung 1997/98. Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler, 71-87.

Schulte, Miriam (1999): Pop-Literatur und kultureller Wandel. Literarische Aneignungsweisen von Pop in deutschen Romanen der 90er Jahre. In: Deutschunterricht (Berlin) 52, no. 5, 348-356.

Steffens, Wilhelm (1978): Sind realistische Kinderbücher Gebrauchsliteratur? In: Westermanns Pädagogische Beiträge 30, no. 12, 475-480.

Steffens, Wilhelm (1993): Moderne Kinder- und Jugendliteratur im Spannungsfeld von Ästhetik und Erziehung. In: Und immer ist es die Sprache. Ed. by Nikolaus Hofen. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider, 141-156.

Steffens, Wilhelm (1995): Epische Formen der Kinderliteratur im Spiegel der Erzähltheorie - Skizzierung einiger jüngerer Entwicklungslinien. In: Sprache und Stil in Texten für junge Leser. Ed. by Angelika Feine, Karl-Ernst Sommerfeldt. Frankfurt/Main u.a.: Lang, , 207-217.

Steffens, Wilhelm (1998): Der komische Familienroman für Kinder. In: Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. Ein Lexikon. Meitingen: Corian, 5th supplement., 1-12.

Steinlein, Rüdiger u.a., eds. (1995): „Ehe alles Legende wird.“ Die Darstellung des Nationalsozialismus in der deutschen Kinder- und Jugendliteratur (1945 - 1995). Supplementary information on the exhibition. Berlin: Inst. f. dt. Literatur d. Humboldt-Universität. Berlin.

Tabbert, Reinbert: Nonsense, Phantastik und Abenteuer. Modelle abweichender Kinderliteratur. In: Merkur 34 (1980), 795-802.

Thiele, Jens (2000): Das Bilderbuch. Ästhetik, Theorie, Analyse, Didaktik, Rezeption. Oldenburg: Isensee.

Wermke, Jutta (1997): Kinder- und Jugendliteratur in den Medien. Ästhetische Wertung im Medienverbund. In: J.W.: Integrierte Medienerziehung im Fachunterricht. München: KoPäd, 67-104.

Wermke, Michael (1999): Jugendliteratur über den Holocaust. Göttingen: Vandenhoek & Ruprecht.

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Research reports

Brunken, Otto (1999): Die zukünftige Wissenschaft oder: Was machen Pippi und Robinson an der Uni? Forschung und Lehre zur Kinder- und Jugendliteratur. In: Kinder- und Jugendliteratur in Deutschland.Hrsg.v. Renate Raecke. München: Arbeitskreis f. Jugendliteratuir, 69-88.

Dahrendorf, Malte (1988): Kinder- und Jugendliteratur-Forschung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. In: The Germanic Review LXIII, Winter, 6-12.

Ewers, Hans-Heino (1988): Anmerkungen zum aktuellen Stand der Kinderliteraturforschung. In: Germanistik und Deutschunterricht im Zeitalter der Technologie. Vorträge des Germanistentages Berlin 1987. 4 Bde. Hrsg. v. Norbert Oellers. 3 Bde, Tübingen: Niemeyer, Bd. 3, 227-240.

Ewers, Hans-Heino (1991): Children’s and Youth Literature Reasearch in West Germany. In: Children’s Literature Research. International Resources and Exchange. Ed. by the International Youth Library. München u.a.: K.G. Saur, 67-72.

Ewers, Hans-Heino (2000): Die universitäre Perspektive auf die Kinder- und Jugendliteratur im Wandel. In: Kinder- Literatur – ‚neue‘ Medien. Hrsg. v. Karin Richter und Sabine Riemann. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider, 74-79.

This bibliography has been published as part of the article "Children’s Literature Research in Germany" in: Children's Literature Association Quarterly (2002-2003), vol. 27, no. 3.

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